EUROPE I
(CHAPTER 1: 41-58)

 

MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES

n    WESTERN EXTREMITY OF EURASIA

n    LINGERING WORLD INFLUENCE

n    HIGH DEGREES OF SPECIALIZATION

n    MANUFACTURING DOMINANCE

n    NUMEROUS NATION-STATES

n    URBANIZED POPULATION

n    HIGH STANDARDS OF LIVING

 

SUBDIVISIONS OF THE REALM (MAP)

n     WESTERN EUROPE

n     EASTERN EUROPE

n     BRITISH ISLES

n     NORTHERN EUROPE

n     MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE

 

PHYSICAL LANDSCAPES (MAP)

§        ALPINE SYSTEM

§        WESTERN UPLANDS

§        CENTRAL UPLANDS

§        NORTH EUROPEAN LOWLAND

 

RELATIVE LOCATION

n    AT THE HEART OF THE LAND HEMISPHERE

n    MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY FOR CONTACT WITH THE REST OF THE WORLD

n    EVERY PART OF EUROPE IS CLOSE TO THE SEA.

n    NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS

n    MODERATE DISTANCES

 

RELATIVE LOCATION (MAP)
AGRARIAN REVOLUTION

n     BEGAN IN EUROPE IN 1750s

n     BASED ON NEW AGRICULTURAL INNOVATIONS

n     ENABLED INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION

n     ENABLED SUSTAINED POPULATION INCREASE

 

VON THUNEN’S ISOLATED STATE

n     A CLASSIC MODEL IN GEOGRAPHY

n     FASHIONED IN 1826 TO EXPLAIN THE ECONOMIC PATTERNS DEVELOPING IN EUROPE

n     BASED ON 4 CONCENTRIC LAND USE RINGS SURROUNDING A MARKET PLACE

n     LAND USE WAS A FUNCTION OF TRANSPORTATION COSTS.

n     THE ISOLATED STATE BECAME THE FOUNDATION FOR MODERN LOCATION THEORY.

 

VON THUNEN’S ISOLATED STATE  (MAP & MODEL)

 

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

n     DEVELOPED IN THE UK BETWEEN 1750-1850

n     EVOLVED FROM TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS WHICH OCCURRED IN BRITISH INDUSTRY

n     PROVED TO BE A MAJOR CATALYST TOWARDS INCREASED URBANIZATION

n     PRODUCED A DISTINCT SPATIAL PATTERN IN EUROPE

 

INDUSTRIAL LOCATION THEORY

n     ALFRED WEBER PUBLISHED HIS WORK IN 1909.

n     EXAMINED THE INFLUENCES THAT AFFECT INDUSTRIAL LOCATION

n     FOCUSED ON ACTIVITIES THAT OCCUR AT SPECIFIC POINTS

n     IDENTIFIED AGGLOMERATIVE AND DEGLOMERATIVE FORCES


 

AREAL FUNCTIONAL SPECIALIZATION

n    PARTICULAR PEOPLES AND PARTICULAR PLACES CONCENTRATING ON THE PRODUCTION OF PARTICULAR GOODS

 

SPATIAL INTERACTION

n    MOVEMENT ACROSS GEOGRAPHIC SPACE

n    INVOLVES CONTACT OF PEOPLE IN TWO OR MORE PLACES FOR THE PURPOSES OF EXCHANGING GOODS OR IDEAS

n    PRINCIPLES

n    COMPLEMENTARITY

n    TRANSFERABILITY

n    INTERVENING OPPORTUNITY

 

COMPLEMENTARITY

n    TWO PLACES, THROUGH AN EXCHANGE OF GOODS, CAN SPECIFICALLY SATISFY EACH OTHER’S DEMANDS.

n    ONE AREA HAS A SURPLUS OF AN ITEM DEMANDED BY A SECOND AREA. 

 

TRANSFERABILITY

n    THE EASE WITH WHICH A COMMODITY MAY BE TRANSPORTED OR THE CAPACITY TO MOVE A GOOD AT A BEARABLE COST

n    RIVERS, MOUNTAIN PASSES, ROAD NETWORKS

n    ADVANCES IN TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGY

 

INTERVENING OPPORTUNITY

n    THE PRESENCE OF A NEARER SOURCE OF SUPPLY OR OPPORTUNITY THAT ACTS TO DIMINISH THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MORE DISTANT SOURCES AND SITES

 

URBAN TRADITION

n    URBANIZATION

n    RELATED CONCEPTS

n    PRIMATE CITY

n    METROPOLIS

n    CBD

 

CITIES

n     THE TERM IS A POLITICAL DESIGNATION.

n     REFERS TO A MUNICIPAL ENTITY THAT IS GOVERNED BY SOME KIND OF ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION

n     THE LARGEST CITIES (ESPECIALLY CAPITALS) ARE:

n         THE FOCI OF THE STATE

n         COMPLETE MICROCOSMS OF THEIR NATIONAL CULTURES

 

PRIMATE CITY

n       A COUNTRY’S LARGEST CITY

n       JEFFERSON’S CRITERIA:

§  ALWAYS DISPROPORTIONATELY LARGER THAN THE SECOND LARGEST URBAN CENTER - MORE THAN TWICE THE SIZE

§  EXPRESSIVE OF THE NATIONAL CULTURE

§  USUALLY (BUT NOT ALWAYS) THE CAPITAL

n  EXAMPLES:  PARIS, LONDON, ATHENS

 

METROPOLITAN COMPLEXES (MODEL)

 

EUROPEAN VERSUS AMERICAN CITIES

§        SIMILARITIES

§        DIFFERENCES

 

EUROPE’S CHANGING POPULATION

§        FALLING SHARE OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION

§        FERTILITY

§        FEWER YOUNG PEOPLE

§        SMALLER WORKING AGE POPULATION

§        BOOM AND BUST AGE-DEPENDENT

§        IMMIGRATION PARTIALLY OFFSETTING LOSSES