1.      What disease is caused by a thiamin deficiency?

a.       Pellagra

b.      Scurvy

c.       Kwashiorkor

d.      Beriberi


2.      The nutrient essential for synthesis of several blood clotting factors is

a.       Vitamin A

b.      Vitamin C

c.       Vitamin K

d.      Vitamin E


3.      Which of the following serves as an antioxidant in cell membranes, protecting them and the DNA inside your cells from damage?

a.       Vitamin K

b.      Vitamin D

c.       Niacin

d.      Vitamin E


4.      Which statement about vitamins is true?

a.       Cannot be stored by the body

b.      Are inorganic

c.       Help regulate chemical reactions of the body

d.      Directly supply energy


5.      Which of the following is true about the intake of vitamins?

a.       Supplemental vitamins are better than those from food

b.      Occasional lapses in vitamin intake should cause no harm

c.       It is hard to get all the vitamins we need from food

d.      Vitamins consumed in excess are excreted


6.      Water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins differ in which way?

a.       Water-soluble ones are stored, whereas fat-soluble ones are excreted readily

b.      Water-soluble are less likely to be toxic

c.       Fat-soluble vitamins have much less potential for toxicity

d.      Water-soluble vitamins are best absorbed in the presence of dietary fat


7.      Which of the following is true about the regulation of the production and sale of vitamin and mineral supplements?

a.       There is no federal legislation regulating supplements

b.      The FDA does not regulate all vitamin and mineral supplements closely

c.       Americans can rest assured that the federal government will protect them from vitamin and mineral supplement overuse

d.      Supplement companies are free to market their products with invalid and illegal claims


8.      Which of the following is true about the absorption, transport, and storage of fat-soluble vitamins?

a.       They enter the bloodstream directly after absorption

b.      Fat in the digestive contents is not important for their absorption

c.       They are not stored to any great extent

d.      After absorption, they are transported in the bloodstream to body cells and or stored in the liver and fatty tissue


9.      Which of the following does not describe fat-soluble vitamins?

a.       They are stored in the body

b.      Excesses are excreted in the urine

c.       They are transported via the bloodstream

d.      They tend to exist in several biologically active forms


10.  Which of the following is converted to vitamin A in the body?

a.       Retinol

b.      Carotene

c.       Cholesterol

d.      Phenylalanine


11.  This vitamin, when consumed during pregnancy, can help prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida

a.       Niacin

b.      Folate/Folic Acid

c.       Riboflavin

d.      B6


12.  The nutrient that can be considered both a vitamin and a hormone is

a.       Vitamin E

b.      Vitamin D

c.       Vitamin A

d.      Niacin


13.  Vitamin D is unique among the vitamins because

a.       It is absorbed and transported via the lymphatic system

b.      Absorption requires bile and fat

c.       It can be formed in the body by skin exposure to the sun

d.      It can be stored


14.  Efficient deposition of calcium and phosphorus in bones is the net effect of

a.       Vitamin A

b.      Riboflavin

c.       Vitamin D

d.      Niacin


15.  The childhood disease rickets is due to a deficiency

a.       Vitamin D

b.      Vitamin A

c.       Vitamin C

d.      Vitamin K


16.  An important role of vitamin K is the synthesis of

a.       Alpha-tocopherol

b.      Rhodopsin

c.       Retinol

d.      Prothrombin


17.  In general, excess amounts of water-soluble vitamins are excreted via the

a.       Kidneys

b.      Intestine

c.       Lungs

d.      Liver


18.  All the following are true of vitamin B vitamins except

a.       Are water soluble

b.      Serve as coenzymes

c.       Can be lost during food processing and preparation

d.      Are stored in the liver


19.  The B vitamins generally function as

a.       Antioxidants

b.      Coenzymes

c.       Emulsifiers

d.      Reducing agents


20.  Niacin is necessary to prevent the disease

a.       Pernicious anemia

b.      Beriberi

c.       Scurvy

d.      Pellagra


21.  Pellagra is characterized by all the following except

a.       Dysphagia

b.      Diarrhea

c.       Dementia

d.      Dermatitis


22.  Bill’s physician has prescribed an intake of 200 milligrams nicotinic acid (a form of niacin) to attempt to preserve his health.  Which of the following is true about nicotinic acid consumption?

a.       It provides no health benefits

b.      It has no toxic effects when consumed in high doses

c.       It can elevate serum triglycerides

d.      It can lower elevated serum cholesterol


23.  A pantothenic acid deficiency

a.       It is very unlikely because of its widespread availability

b.      It is very likely

c.       Occurs commonly in children

d.      Occurs commonly in the elderly


24.  Vitamins involved in red blood cell synthesis are

a.       Folate and thiamin

b.      Thiamin and niacin

c.       Vitamin B12 and folate

d.      Folate and pantothenic acid


25.  Acquiring sufficient vitamin B12 from the diet may be a problem to vegans because

a.       Phytic acid in vegetable proteins may inhibit its absorption

b.      They lack the R-protein in the stomach

c.       It is only found in animal products

d.      Deficiency may result from high intakes of legumes


26.  Formation and maintenance of collagen requires

a.       Thiamin

b.      Vitamin C

c.       Pantothenic acid

d.      Folate


27.  Scurvy can be prevented with adequate intakes of

a.       Niacin

b.      Riboflavin

c.       Vitamin C

d.      Thiamin


28.  Water constitutes _____ percent of body weight

a.       10-20

b.      25-45

c.       50-70

d.      75-95


29.  The amount of water in each compartment mainly is controlled by

a.       Oxygen concentration

b.      Glucose concentration

c.       The presence of fatty acids

d.      Ion concentration


30.  The two most significant extracellular ions are

a.       Sodium and chloride

b.      Phosphate and potassium

c.       Potassium and sodium

d.      Chloride and potassium


31.  Water regulates body temperature through heat loss via

a.       Conduction

b.      Radiation

c.       Respiration

d.      Evaporation


32.  Joe is a wrestler and during his workouts he loses 2 pounds.  How much water would he have to drink to replenish this water weight loss?

a.       2 cups

b.      3 cups

c.       4 cups

d.      6 cups


33.  Which of the following is not true about the regulation of fluid in the body?

a.       Thirst is a reliable indicator of how much water should be consumed to replenish body fluids

b.      Antidiuretic hormone is released to force the kidney to conserve water

c.       There is a limit to how concentrated the kidney can make the urine

d.      Even though the kidney can effectively conserve water, insensible water losses must be replenished



34.  Which of the following statements does not describe the role of minerals in the body?

a.       They make possible the transfer of nerve impulses

b.      They are constituents of important body compounds

c.       They provide 4 kcalories per gram

d.      They help maintain water balance


35.  Consumption of a diet high in salt MAY

a.       Cause damage to the lungs

b.      Result in lower systolic blood pressure

c.       Increase fecal excretion of sodium

d.      Increase blood pressure


36.  Potassium performs all the following functions except

a.       It maintains the ability to see at night

b.      It maintains fluid balance

c.       It assists nerve transmission

d.      It maintains normal heart function


37.  Elevated blood pressure is associated with which of the following minerals?

a.       Sodium

b.      Potassium

c.       Cadmium

d.      Chloride


38.  In the body, 99 percent of calcium is found in

a.       The liver

b.      Intracellular fluid

c.       Bones and teeth

d.      Nerve cells


39.  Which of the following is not a function of calcium?

a.       Muscle contraction

b.      Appetite regulation

c.       Blood clotting

d.      Normal nerve transmission


40.  The most nutrient-dense calcium food source is

a.       Dark green vegetables

b.      Meat

c.       Milk and dairy products

d.      Cereal grains


41.  According to the RDA, the mineral the you need in the largest amount is

a.       Iron

b.      Iodine

c.       Calcium

d.      Copper


42.  The mineral that is least likely to be deficient in the American diet is

a.       Calcium

b.      Phosphorus

c.       Iron

d.      Copper


43.  What is magnesium’s primary function?

a.       It acts as the carrier for calcium absorption

b.      It is important in hemoglobin synthesis

c.       It maintains mucus production in the digestive tract

d.      It is important for nerve and heart function


44.  We get most of the sulfur in our diet from

a.       Carbohydrates

b.      Water

c.       Fats and oils

d.      Proteins


45.  In some cultures, pots and pans used in cooking may contribute some _____ to the diet

a.       Zinc

b.      Iron

c.       Sulfur

d.      Manganese


46.  An impaired immune system is associated with a deficiency of

a.       Iron

b.      Zinc

c.       Chromium

d.      Selenium


47.  A mineral that has antioxidant functions and has been suggested to reduce cancer risk is

a.       Iron

b.      Manganese

c.       Selenium

d.      Sulfur


48.  This mineral can be protective for the teeth when introduced into the water supply; however it can cause tooth mottling when consumed in high quantities

a.       Fluoride

b.      Copper

c.       Iron

d.      Selenium


49.  A goiter may form as a consequence of an inadequate intake of

a.       Copper

b.      Magnesium

c.       Sodium

d.      Iodide


50.  The most effective treatment for preventing bone loss in those at risk for osteoporosis is

a.       Adequate intake of bone building nutrients and exercise

b.      Estrogen and increasing calcium

c.       Increasing calcium

d.      Increasing calcium and vitamin E

True/False:     If the statement is true, blacken the “A” on the Scantron form. If the statement is to any degree false, blacken the “B”.

51.       Calcium, vitamin D, and iodine are all different names for the same substance.

52.       Vitamins are a source of energy for the body (in the same way that carbs/lipids/proteins are).

53.       Excesses of certain vitamins can cause serious damage.

54.       A well-chosen diet can supply all the vitamins that most people need.

55.       Vitamins require digestion before they can be absorbed.

56.       Some vitamins are inactivated by exposure to heat.

57.       Even hard, seemingly dry tissues such as bones and teeth contain significant amounts of water.

58.       Oxygen is a mineral.

59.       Pure water has a pH value of 7.

60.       Fish would be a good source of heme iron.

61.       Minerals are widespread in basic foods.

      62.     Taking nutritional supplements to provide essential nutrients is not necessary unless food intake is low or an individual has a condition causing  a deficiency.

      63.     Although an individual can live without other nutrients for a long time, he or she can only survive for a few days without water.

      64.     Sweat contains electrolytes and heavy sweating can cause electrolyte deficiency.

       65.     An individual’s water needs vary according to the food he or she eats, the environmental temperature and humidity, his or her activity level,    and other factors.